VSM: Shared Memory Logging and Statistics¶
Varnish uses shared memory to export parameters, logging and statistics, because it is faster and much more efficient than regular files.
“Varnish Shared Memory” or VSM, is the overall mechanism maintaining sets of shared memory files, each consisting a chunk of memory identified by a two-part name (class, ident).
The Class indicates what type of data is stored in the chunk, for instance “Arg” for command line arguments useful for establishing an CLI connection to the varnishd, “Stat” for statistics counters (VSC) and “Log” for log records (VSL).
The ident name part is mostly used with stats counters, where they identify dynamic counters, such as:
Shared memory trickery¶
Shared memory is faster than regular files, but it is also slightly tricky in ways a regular logfile is not.
When you open a file in “append” mode, the operating system guarantees that whatever you write will not overwrite existing data in the file. The neat result of this is that multiple processes or threads writing to the same file does not even need to know about each other, it all works just as you would expect.
With a shared memory log, we get no such help from the kernel, the writers need to make sure they do not stomp on each other, and they need to make it possible and safe for the readers to access the data.
The “CS101” way to deal with that, is to introduce locks, and much time is spent examining the relative merits of the many kinds of locks available.
Inside the varnishd (worker) process, we use mutexes to guarantee consistency, both with respect to allocations, log entries and stats counters.
We do not want a varnishncsa trying to push data through a stalled ssh connection to stall the delivery of content, so readers like that are purely read-only, they do not get to affect the varnishd process and that means no locks for them.
Instead we use “stable storage” concepts, to make sure the view seen by the readers is consistent at all times.
As long as you only add stuff, that is trivial, but taking away stuff, such as when a backend is taken out of the configuration, we need to give the readers a chance to discover this, a “cooling off” period.
The Varnish way:¶
When varnishd starts, it opens locked shared memory files, advising to use different -n arguments if an attempt is made to run multiple varnishd instances with the same name.
Child processes each use their own shared memory files, since a worker process restart marks a clean break in operation anyway.
To the extent possible, old shared memory files are marked as abandoned by setting the alloc_seq field to zero, which should be monitored by all readers of the VSM.
Processes subscribing to VSM files for a long time, should notice if the VSM file goes “silent” and check that the file has not been renamed due to a child restart.
Chunks inside the shared memory file form a linked list, and whenever that list changes, the alloc_seq field changes.
The linked list and other metadata in the VSM file, works with offsets relative to the start address of where the VSM file is memory mapped, so it need not be mapped at any particular address.
When new chunks are allocated, for instance when a new backend is added, they are appended to the list, no matter where they are located in the VSM file.
When a chunk is freed, it will be taken out of the linked list of allocations, its length will be set to zero and alloc_seq will be changed to indicate a change of layout. For the next 60 seconds the chunk will not be touched or reused, giving other subscribers a chance to discover the deallocation.
The include file <vapi/vsm.h> provides the supported API for accessing VSM files.
VSM and Containers¶
The varnish way works great with single purpose containers. By sharing the varnish working directory read-only, vsm readers can be run in containers separate from those running varnishd instances on the same host.
When running varnishd and vsm readers in the same process namespace, pid information can be used by vsm readers to determine if varnishd processes are alive.
But, when running varnishd and vsm readers in different containers, the pid information has no relevance and may even be ambiguous across name spaces.
Thus, with such setups, the environment variable VSM_NOPID needs to be set for vsm readers to disable use of pid information.